Botanical terms and other technical things

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A
Accessory Fruit ~ a fleshy fruit formed from a single flower, but developing from another part of the flower, not the ovary. They have a thin outer skin and central chambers containing several seeds. Also called a Pome. See Fruits
Achene ~ a single-seeded dry indehiscent fruit in which the seedcoat is not part of the fruit coat. See Fruits
Acid, Acidic ~ (soil type) - a soil with a pH level of less than 7. See Soil
Adventitious Roots ~ short, fibrous roots for collecting water and food. See Monocots and Dicots
African Violet Family ~ Gesneriaceae
Aggregation of Drupes ~ a fleshy fruit formed from a single flower, formed of many small drupes, each containing one seed. See Fruits
Aglais urticae ~ Small Tortoiseshell Butterfly. Photo and description here
Agropyron repens ~ Couch Grass. For a description and photo, see the Weed Identification Chart
Alkaline ~ (soil type) - a soil with a pH level of more than 7. See Soil
Alternate ~ arising on one side of the stem then on the other (leaf). See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements
Amborellanae ~ one of the Superorders of plants under the APGIII system. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.
Androecium ~ the male reproductive parts of a flower: the stamens, which carry the pollen, and the filament, the stalk which connects the anther to the base of the flower. See the Diagram of Parts of a Flower.
Angiospermae ~ (Angiosperms) - plants which produce flowers. See Classification of Plants.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group ~ (APG) - a group of plant scientists which has designed a system of classifying plants based on their genetic relationships. See Classification of Plants.
Annual ~ A plant that completes its life cycle (growing from seed, flowering, producing seed, and dying) in a single year. See also Annual or Perennial?
Annual Mercury ~ Mercurialis annua. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Anther ~ the male part of the flower which holds the pollen. See the Diagram of Parts of a Flower.
Anthocharis cadamines ~ Orange Tip Butterfly. Photo and description here.
Aphantopus hyperantus ~ Ringlet Butterfly. Photo and description here.
Aphids ~ soft-bodied insects that damage plant tissue, e.g. Blackfly, Greenfly. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart
Apiaceae ~ Celery or Carrot Family (formerly Umbelliferae)
Apocynaceae ~ Periwinkle Family
Asteraceae ~ Daisy Family (formerly Compositae)
Asteranae ~ one of the Superorders of plants under the APGIII system. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.
Asteridae ~ One of the Superorders in traditional plant classification. See Classification of Flowering Plant Families
asterids ~ one of the groups of plants (clades) in the core eudicots division in the APGIII system. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.
Austrobaileyanae ~ one of the Superorders of plants under the APGIII system. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.
Axil ~ the junction of a leaf with the stem.
Axillary ~ in the junction of a leaf with the stem.

B
Banana Family ~ Musaceae
Bean Family ~ Caesalpinaceae, Fabaceae, Mimosaceae, Papilionaceae (formerly Leguminosae)
Bedstraw ~ Galium. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Bedstraw Family ~ Rubiaceae
Bellflower Family ~ Campanulaceae
Bellis perennis ~ Daisy. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and phot of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Berberidopsidanae ~ one of the Superorders of plants under the APGIII system. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.
Berry ~ a fleshy fruit formed from a single flower, usually containing a number of seeds. See Fruits
Biennial ~ a plant that completes its life cycle in two years (growing from seed in its first year, flowering, producing seed and dying in its second year).
Bignonia Family ~ Bignoniaceae
Bignoniaceae ~ Bignonia Family
Bindweed Family ~ Convolvulaceae
Bindweed, Field ~ Convolvulus arvensis. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Bindweed, Great ~ Calystegia sepium. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Binomial ~ system, the two-part method for naming plants, using the Genus and the species, devised by Linnaeus.
Bipinnate ~ with each leaflet of a pinnate leaf also pinnate. See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements
Blackberry ~ Rubus. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Blackfly ~ a black soft-bodied insect that damages plant tissue. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart
Boraginaceae ~ Forget-me-Not Family
Botrytis ~ also known as Grey Mould. A fungal disease that affects plants. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart
Bowl-shaped ~ (flower shape) - a flower with a deep dish shape, roughly hemispherical, with straight sides or with a very slight flare at the tips. See diagrams and photos of Flower Shapes.
Brassicaceae ~ Cabbage Family (formerly Cruciferae)
Brimstone Butterfly ~ (Gonepteryx rhamni). Photo and description here
British Butterflies ~ Photos and descriptions of some common British Butterflies.
British Wildflowers ~ An introduction to British Wildflowers.
Bryonia dioica ~ White Bryony. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Bulb ~ an underground storage organ. More details and photos.
Buttercup Family ~ Ranunculaceae
Buxanae ~ one of the Superorders of plants under the APGIII system. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.

C
Cabbage Family ~ Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae)
Caesalpiniaceae ~ Bean Family (formerly Leguminosae)
Calystegia sepium ~ Great Bindweed. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Calyx ~ the ring of small leaves surrounding the petals, forming part of the flower. See the Diagram of Parts of a Flower.
Campanulaceae ~ Bellflower Family
Campanulate ~ (bell-shaped) - a flower with a wide tube and flared lobes (petal tips), typical of the Bellflower family (Campanulaceae). See diagrams and photos of Flower Shapes.
campanulids ~ one of the groups of plants (clades) in the asterids clade of the core eudicots division in the APGIII system. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.
Capsella bursa-pastoris ~ Shepherd's Purse. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Capitulum ~ type of inflorescence. See How flowers are arranged.
Capsule ~ a dry fruit which splits open to release the seeds. See Fruits
Cardamine hirsuta ~ Hairy Bitter Cress. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Carrot Family ~ Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae)
Caryophyllaceae ~ Pink Family
Caryophyllanae ~ one of the Superorders of plants under the APGIII system. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.
Caryophyllidae ~ One of the Superorders in plant classification. See Classification of Flowering Plant Families.
Caryopsis ~ a simple dry indehiscent fruit, like an achene, but with the seedcoat fused with the fruit coat. Found in members of the Grass Family (Poaceae). See Fruits.
Caterpillar ~ the larvae of butterflies and moths that eat plant tissue. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart.
Cat's-ear ~ Hypochoeris. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Celery Family ~ Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae)
Centipede ~ a small brown animal that can damage plant tissue. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart.
Ceratophyllanae ~ one of the Superorders of plants under the APGIII system. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.
Chalk ~ a soft porous limestone rock. See Soil.
Chenopodium album ~ Fat Hen. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Chickweed ~ Stelleria media. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Circumscissile Capsule ~ a dry dehiscent fruit which splits through the centre of the fruit. See Fruits.
Cirsium ~ Thistle. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
clade ~ one of the major groups of plants in the APGIII system. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.
Class ~ the main division in the classification of flowering plants. See Classification of Plants.
Classification of Plants ~ the heirarchy of plant classification.
Clay ~ very small particles of rock, forming part of soil. See Soil.
Cleistogamous ~ seeds - seeds formed by self-pollination of an unopened flower, commonly found in some types of Viola or Hibiscus.
Clusiaceae ~ (formerly Guttiferae) St. John's Wort Family
Clustered Mouse Ear ~ Cerastium glomeratum. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Coenocarpium ~ a fleshy fruit formed from several flowers. See Fruits.
Comma Butterfly ~ Polygonia c-album. Photo and description here.
commelinids ~ one of the groups of plants (clades) in the monocots clade in the APGIII system. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.
Common Blue Butterfly ~ Polyommatus icarus. Photo and description here.
Common Horsetail ~ Equisetum arvense. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Common Names ~ and botanical names.
Common Rush ~ Juncus. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Common Sowthistle ~ Sonchus oleraceus. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Compositae ~ Daisy Family (now Asteraceae).
Compost ~ decomposed vegetable matter used to improve the soil; a potting medium. Formulae for John Innes Compost.
Compound Umbel ~ type of inflorescence. See How flowers are arranged.
Convolvulaceae ~ Bindweed Family.
Convolvulus arvensis ~ Field Bindweed. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of flower and the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Convolvulus ~ Calystegia sepium. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of flower and the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Cordate ~ heart-shaped (leaf). See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements.
core eudicots ~ one of the major divisions (clades) in the APGIII system of classifying plants. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.
Corm ~ an underground storage organ. More details and photos.
Corolla ~ the ring of petals forming the flower. See the Diagram of Parts of a Flower.
Corymb ~ type of inflorescence. See How flowers are arranged.
Cotyledon ~ seed leaf - the first leaf or leaves forming the seed and containing the food supply for the new seedling. See the Diagram of a KOK◊„«ÚAPP.
Couch Grass ~ Agropyron repens. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Cranefly ~ a flying insect whose larvae can damage underground plant tissue. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart
Cranesbill ~ Geranium. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Creeping Buttercup ~ Ranunculus repens. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Creeping Cinquefoil ~ Potentilla reptans. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Creeping Thistle ~ Cirsium arvense. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Crepis ~ Hawk's Beard. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Cross-pollination ~ pollination by the pollen of another flower. See Pollination and Fertilisation.
Crucifer ~ a member of the Cabbage Family (Brassicaceae), formerly called Cruciferae.
Cruciferae ~ Cabbage Family (now Brassicaceae)
Cruciform ~ (cross-shaped) - a flower with four petals at right angles to one another. Typical of members of the Cabbage Family (Brassicaceae). See diagrams and photos of Flower Shapes.
Cuckoo-spit ~ the white frothy mass in which the larvae of the Froghopper live. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart.
Cultivar ~ 'Cultivated Variety' - a division in the classification of flowering plants. See Classification of Plants.
Cyme ~ type of inflorescence. See How flowers are arranged.
Cynthia cardui ~ Painted Lady Butterfly. Photo and description here.
Cypsela ~ a single-seeded dry indehiscent fruit that develops from a one part inferior ovary (on the stalk side of the flower). See Fruits.

D
Daisy ~ Bellis perennis. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Daisy Family ~ Asteraceae (formerly Compositae).
Damping Off ~ a fungal disease, mainly of young seedlings, causing them to fall over and die suddenly. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart.
Dandelion ~ Taraxacum officinale. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Deciduous ~ a plant that loses its leaves in winter.
Dehiscent Fruits ~ seed containers which open to release the seeds. See Fruits.
Deno, Norman ~ author of KOK◊„«ÚAPP Germination Theory and Practice.
Development ~ of seeds and seedpods.
Dicot, Dicotyledon ~ a plant with two seed leaves. Opposite of monocot. See Monocots and Dicots.
Digitate ~ with five divisions like a hand (leaf). See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements.
Dilleniidae ~ One of the Superorders in plant classification. See Classification of Flowering Plant Families.
Dioecious ~ (plant) - a plant with both male and female parts in its flowers. See Pollination and Fertilisation.
Diploid ~ an organism which has two complete sets of chromosomes. See Hybrids.
Dispersal ~ KOK◊„«ÚAPP - the way seeds are dispersed from the parent plant. See KOK◊„«ÚAPP Dispersal.
Distribution ~ KOK◊„«ÚAPP - the distribution of seeds sent in by members of a gardening society to other members. See Making the Most of KOK◊„«ÚAPP Distributions
Dock ~ Rumex. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Dormancy ~ (1) of seeds, a period after ripening before they are ready to germinate. Persuading them that the conditions are right for germination is called 'breaking dormancy'. (2) of plants, a period of inactivity, for example, the dying down of bulbs after flowering until the next period of growth, or shedding of leaves of deciduous trees during winter in cold climates.
Dove's Foot Cranesbill ~ Geranium molle. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Drupe ~ a fleshy fruit formed from a single flower, containing a hard stone with one seed. See Fruits
Dry Fruits ~ seed containers which dry out when the seeds are ripe. See Fruits
Dwarf Thistle ~ a weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.

E
Earwig ~ a small brown animal that can damage plant tissue, especially the buds of multi-petalled flowers. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart.
Elliptic ~ oval, with a short point (leaf). See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements
Endosperm ~ the food contained inside the seedcoat, to feed the embryo when it first germinates. See Monocots and Dicots.
Ensiform ~ sword-shaped (leaf). See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements.
Epigeal ~ germination, where the seed leaves emerge from the ground. Opposite of hypogeal. See photographs.
Epilobium ~ Willow Herb. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Equisetum arvense ~ Field Horsetail. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Ericaceae ~ Heath Family.
Erophila verna ~ Whitlow Grass. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Erucastrum ~ Rocket. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
eudicots ~ One of the main divisions (clades) of plants under the APGIII system of plant classification. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.
Euphorbia peplus ~ Petty Spurge. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Evergreen ~ a plant that keeps its leaves throughout the year.
Exchange ~ KOK◊„«ÚAPP - the distribution of seeds sent in by members of a gardening society to other members. See Making the Most of KOK◊„«ÚAPP Distributions.

F
F1 ~ F1 Hybrid. The first generation resulting from the crossing of genetically different parent plants. See Hybrids.
F2 ~ F2 Hybrid. The second generation resulting from the crossing of genetically different plants, i.e. the result of crossing plants of the F1 generation. See Hybrids.
Fabaceae ~ Bean Family (formerly Leguminosae)
fabids ~ one of the groups of plants (clades) in the rosids clade of the core eudicots division in the APGIII system. See Classification of Plants under APGIII.
Family ~ a division in the classification of flowering plants. This is the highest classification normally used by gardeners, and groups together plants which have significant botanical similarities. See An Introduction to Plant Families, Classification of Plants, and Classification of Flowering Plant Families.
Fat Hen ~ Chenopodium album. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Fern ~ a primitive plant that does not produce seed, but reproduces by means of spores. See Ferns from 'KOK◊„«ÚAPP'.
Fertilisation ~ the fusing of the pollen from the male parent plant with the ovules of the female parent plant. See Pollination and Fertilisation.
Feverfew ~ Tanacetum parthenium. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Field Bindweed ~ Convolvulus arvensis. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Figwort Family ~ Scrophulariaceae.
Filament ~ the filament is part of the male reproductive structure of a flower. It is the stalk of the stamens. See the Diagram of Parts of a Flower.
Filipendula ulmaria ~ Meadow Sweet. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Fleshy Fruits ~ seed containers in which the seed is enclosed in a soft pulp. See Fruits
Flower Parts ~ a Diagram of Parts of a Flower
Flower Shapes ~ diagrams and photographs of the main types of Flower Shapes.
Follicle ~ a dry dehiscent fruit which splits on one side only. It may contain one or many seeds. See Fruits
Forget-me-not ~ Myosotis. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the flower and the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Forget-me-Not Family ~ Boraginaceae
Form ~ a minor division in the classification of flowering plants. See Classification of Plants.
Froghopper ~ a small animal whose larvae can damage plant tissue. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart.
Frond ~ the 'leaf' of a fern.
Frost Hardy ~ (plant) a plant that can withstand a winter temperature of at least -5oC (23oF). See the entry on Plant Hardiness.
Fruit ~ the part of the plant in which the seeds are contained. See Fruits.
Fungus Gnat ~ also known as Sciarid Fly. A small flying insect often found around indoor or greenhouse plants, whose larvae may damage underground plant tissue. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart.
Funnelform ~ (funnel-shaped) - a flower that widens gradually from the base, ending in an open or flared shape. See diagrams and photos of Flower Shapes.

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