More botanical terms and other technical stuff

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P
Palmate ~ palm-shaped (leaf). See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements
Panicle ~ type of inflorescence. See How flowers are arranged.
Papaveraceae ~ Poppy Family
Papilionaceae ~ Bean Family (formerly Leguminosae)
Papilionaceous ~ (pea-shaped) - the flower shape typical of members of the Papilionaceae, having a large upper petal called the standard, two large side petals called wings, and two lower petals, often fused together, called the keel, which encloses the stamens and stigma. See diagrams and photos of Flower Shapes.
Parts of a Flower ~ Diagram of Parts of a Flower
Pearlwort ~ a weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Peat ~ partially decomposed mosses and sedges, used as a potting medium, or a component of some soils. See Soil
Pedicel ~ flower stalk.
Peduncle ~ flower stalk.
Peltate ~ with the stem underneath the surface of the leaf. See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements
Pepo ~ a fleshy fruit formed from a single flower, developing from an inferior ovary. They have a leathery outer skin, contain several seeds, and are all members of the Gourd Family (Cucurbitaceae). See Fruits
Perfoliate ~ with the stem growing through the leaf. See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements
Periwinkle Family ~ Apocynaceae
Pests and Diseases ~ Plant Pests - Identification Chart
Perennial ~ A plant that lives for many years. See also Annual or Perennial?
Petal ~ the outer part of the flower, usually large and brightly coloured, as its function is to attract pollinators to the plant. See the Diagram of Parts of a Flower.
Petty Spurge ~ Euphorbia peplus. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
pH ~ a measure with a scale of 1-14 of the acidity or alkalinity of (usually) soil. Soil with a pH value of less than 7 is acidic, 7 is neutral, and higher than 7 is alkaline.
Phenotype ~ the physical characteristics of an individual as distinct from their genetical makeup. See Hybrids.
Phlox Family ~ Polemoniaceae
Photosynthesis ~ method by which plants produce the energy they need to grow. The chlorophyll (green colouring) in their leaves is able to use the energy of sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars and starches to feed the plant.
Pin-eyed ~ a flower in which the stigma is visible in the throat (e.g. some Primulas).
Pink Family ~ Caryophyllaceae
Pinnate ~ with two rows of leaflets making up the leaf. See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements
Pinnatifid ~ cut, but not quite into separate parts (leaf). See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements
Pinnatisect ~ cut, but not quite into separate parts (leaf). See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements
Pistil ~ the female reproductive part of a flower (the gynoecium), made up of the stigma, style and ovary. See the Diagram of Parts of a Flower.
Plantain ~ Plantago. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Plant Classification ~ the heirarchy of plant classification.
Plant Families ~ A Brief Introduction.
Plumbaginaceae ~ Leadwort Family
Plumule ~ the embryo shoot contained in the seed. See Diagram of a KOKAPP.
Polemoniaceae ~ Phlox Family
Pollen ~ The grains produced in the pollen sac, held on the stamens, that carry the genes of the male parent plant and are transferred to the stigma to fertilise the ovules of the female parent plant.
Pollen sac ~ the bag that holds the pollen at top of the filament.
Pollen Parent ~ the male parent plant of the next generation whose genes are put into the seed on fertilisation.
Pollination ~the act of transferring pollen from the stamens to the stigma. See Pollination and Fertilisation
Polyploid ~ an organism (usually a hybrid plant) with twice the normal number of chromosomes. See Hybrids.
Pome ~ a fleshy fruit formed from a single flower, but developing from another part of the flower, not the ovary. They have a thin outer skin and central chambers containing several seeds. Also called Accessory Fruits. See Fruits
Poppy Family ~ Papaveraceae
Porose Capsule ~ a dry dehiscent fruit which opens with pores or holes around the top. See Fruits
Potato Family ~ Solanaceae
Powdery Mildew ~ a fungal disease causing yellowing of leaves and distortion of buds. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart
Primrose Family ~ Primulaceae
Primulaceae ~ Primrose Family
Prothallus ~ the initial growth from fern spores from which the new plant develops. See Ferns from 'KOKAPP'.
Pseudocarp ~ a fleshy fruit formed from a single flower, but which does not contain the seeds. The seeds are Achenes, on the outer surface of the fruit. See Fruits

Q

R
Raceme ~ type of inflorescence. See How flowers are arranged.
Radicle ~ the embryo root contained in the seed. See Diagram of a KOKAPP.
Ragwort ~ Senecio. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Ranunculaceae ~ Buttercup Family
Red Spider Mite ~ a very small insect affecting plant tissue, particularly in warm and dry conditions. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart
Rhizome ~ an underground storage organ. More details and photos.
Rhomboid ~ diamond-shaped (leaf). See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements
Ribwort Plantain ~ Plantago lanceolata. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Rosaceae ~ Rose Family
Rose Family ~ Rosaceae
Rosette ~ circles of leaves growing closely together. See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements
Rosidae ~ One of the Superorders in plant classification. See Classification of Flowering Plant Families
Rubiaceae ~ Bedstraw Family

S
Salverform ~ (flower shape) - a flower with a long, thin tube, that widens suddenly into a flat-faced flower. See diagrams and photos of Flower Shapes.
Samara ~ an independent dry indehiscent fruit which has part of the fruit wall extended to form a wing (i.e. not a winged seed inside another type of seed pod). See Fruits
Sand ~ small particles of rock. A component of soil. See Soil
Saucer-shaped ~ (flower shape) - a flower that is almost flat, with slightly upturned petal tips. See diagrams and photos of Flower Shapes.
Saxifragaceae ~ Saxifrage Family
Saxifrage Family ~ Saxifragaceae
Scarification ~ Making a small puncture in a seedcoat to allow moisture to penetrate, for example, by nicking or rubbing on sandpaper.
Schizocarpic Samara ~ a fruit formed of more than one samara which splits into the separate fruits. See Fruits
Sciarid Fly ~ also known as Fungus Gnat. A small flying insect often found around indoor or greenhouse plants, whose larvae may damage underground plant tissue. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart
Scrophulariaceae ~ Figwort Family
Secondary Growth ~ the growth in the diameter of a stem or branch in addition to upward growth. See Monocots and Dicots
KOKAPP ~ the embryo of the new plant produced from fertilisation of the ovule by pollen, enclosed in an outer coat. See Diagram of a KOKAPP.
KOKAPP ~ development of
KOKAPP Dispersal ~ the way seeds are dispersed from the parent plant. See KOKAPP Dispersal
KOKAPP Distribution ~ the distribution of seeds sent in by members of a gardening society to other members. See Making the Most of KOKAPP Distributions
KOKAPP Envelopes - a KOKAPP Envelope Template
KOKAPP Exchange ~ the distribution of seeds sent in by members of a gardening society to other members. See Making the Most of KOKAPP Distributions
KOKAPP Parent ~ the female parent plant of the next generation whose genes are put into the seed on fertilisation.
Selective Breeding ~ breeding hybrids with a desired characteristics by removing plants not showing the characteristic from each generation until all plants in the group show the desirable characteristic. See Hybrids.
Self ~ (flower colour) - a flower of a single, solid colour.
Self-pollination ~ pollination of the stigma by the pollen of the same flower. See Pollination and Fertilisation
Selfed ~ Self Pollinated. Fertilisation of the ovules of a plant with pollen from the same plant.
Sepal ~ one of the small green 'leaves' directly under the petals, forming part of the flower. See the Diagram of Parts of a Flower.
Septicidal Capsule ~ a dry dehiscent fruit which splits along the septa (joints of the ovary). See Fruits
Sessile ~ without a stalk (flower or leaf).
Silique ~ a dry dehiscent fruit. It is long and thin, splits down the two long sides, and has a papery membrane (the septum) between the two halves. Found in members of the Cabbage Family (Brassicaceae). See Fruits
Silt ~ small particles of rock, forming part of soil. See Soil
Silverweed ~ Potentilla anserina. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Slug ~ a mollusc without a shell that eats plant tissue. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart
Snail ~ a mollusc with a shell that eats plant tissue. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart
Soil ~ the outer layer of the earth's surface. See Soil
Solanaceae ~ Potato Family
Sooty Mould ~ a fungus which grows on the surface of leaves, feeding on the secretions of aphids. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart
Sori ~ the capsules on the underside of the leaf of a fern that hold the spores. See Ferns from 'KOKAPP'.
Sorosis ~ a fleshy fruit formed from several flowers. See Fruits
Sowthistle ~ Sonchus. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Spathulate ~ spoon-shaped (leaf). See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements
Species ~ a division in the classification of flowering plants. The second name in the binomial system, this is the name that defines an individual plant, e.g. Papaver somniferum See Classification of Plants.
Speedwell ~ a weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Spike ~ type of inflorescence. See How flowers are arranged.
Spores ~ the dust-like substance produced by ferns from which the new plant eventually develops. See Ferns from 'KOKAPP'.
Springtail ~ a small hopping insect found on the surface of compost or under pots, feeding on plant tissue. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart
Stamen ~ part of the male reproductive system of the flower, the androecium. The stamens are made up of the anthers and the filament. See the Diagram of Parts of a Flower and Pollination and Fertilisation.
Stellate ~ (star-shaped) - a flower with many narrow petals arising separately from a central point. See diagrams and photos of Flower Shapes.
Stigma ~ one of the female reproductive part of a flower. The stigma is on the end of the style, and has a sticky surface to retain the pollen. See the Diagram of Parts of a Flower.
St. John's Wort ~ Hypericum. A weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
St. John's Wort Family ~ Clusiaceae.
Stinging Nettle ~ a weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Stratification ~ Keeping seeds in layers of damp sand in cold temperatures, to break seed dormancy.
Style ~ part of the female reproductive system of a plant, connecting the stigma with the ovary. The pollen grains grow down from the stigma to fertilise the ovules in the ovary at the base of the style. See the Diagram of Parts of a Flower and Pollination and Fertilisation.
Subclass ~ a major division in the classification of flowering plants. See Classification of Plants.
Subfamily ~ a division in the classification of flowering plants. See Classification of Plants.
Substrate ~ the underlying rock type in an area. See Soil.
Subtribe ~ a division in the classification of flowering plants. See Classification of Plants.
Superior Ovary ~ an ovary inside the flower.
Superorder~ a major division in the classification of flowering plants. See Classification of Plants and Classification of Flowering Plant Families.
Syngonium ~ a fleshy fruit formed from several flowers. See Fruits.

T
Tap Root ~ a long, tapering root which can anchor the plant in the soil as well as collecting water and food. See Monocots and Dicots.
Tender ~ (plant) a plant that would be damaged by temperatures lower than 5oC (41oF). See the entry on Plant Hardiness.
Testa ~ seedcoat. See Diagram of a KOKAPP.
Tetraploid ~ an organism (usually a hybrid plant) with four times the normal number of chromosomes. See Hybrids.
Thistle ~ a weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Thrum-eyed ~ a flower in which the thrums (stamens) are visible in the throat, as in some species of Primula.
Thyme-leaved Speedwell ~ a weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart
Topsoil ~ the top layer of earth in our gardens. See Soil.
Tribe ~ a division in the classification of flowering plants. See Classification of Plants.
Trifoliate ~ with each leaf made up of three separate leaflets. See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements.
Tripinnate ~ with each leaflet divided into three. See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements
Triploid ~ an organism (usually a hybrid plant) with three times the normal number of chromosomes. See Hybrids.
Trumpet-shaped ~ (flower shape) - a flower that starts as a narrow tube, but widens into a flared mouth, where the petals often turn back. See diagrams and photos of Flower Shapes.
Tuber ~ an underground storage organ. More details and photos.
Tubular ~ (flower shape) - a flower with a long, thin, straight-sided tube formed of united petals, often separating at the mouth into a flared shape. See diagrams and photos of Flower Shapes.
Tunic ~ the papery covering of a bulb.

U
Umbel ~ type of inflorescence. See How flowers are arranged.
Umbelliferae ~ Carrot or Celery Family (now Apiaceae)
Underground Storage Organs ~ bulbs, corms, rhizomes, tubers. More details and photos.
Urceolate ~ (urn-shaped) - a flower in which the petals are fused into an almost enclosed globe shape, separating at the mouth into individual flared petals. See diagrams and photos of Flower Shapes.

V
Valvate Capsule ~ a dry dehiscent fruit in which the tips of the seed capsule split. See Fruits.
Variety ~ a minor division in the classification of flowering plants. See Classification of Plants.
Verticillaster ~ type of inflorescence. See How flowers are arranged.
Vascular Bundles ~ The groups of tissue which carry water from the roots to the leaves of a plant. See Monocots and Dicots.
Violaceae ~ Violet Family.
Violet Family ~ Violaceae.

W
Waterleaf Family ~ Hydrophyllaceae.
Weeds ~ for photos of flowers and seedlings of around 50 weeds, go here.
White Bryony ~ a weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Whitlow Grass ~ a weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Whorl ~ a ring of flowers or leaves around the stem, especially in members of the Deadnettle/Mint Family (Lamiaceae)
Whorled ~ leaves arising in rings around the stem. See the photos of Leaf Shapes and Arrangements.
Willow ~ a tree that can be a weed. For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Willow Herb ~ a weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Woodlouse ~ a small crustacean, preferring damp conditions, feeding mainly on decaying plant material, but which may damage living plant tissue. See the Plant Pests Identification Chart.
Wood Sorrel Family ~ Oxalidaceae.

X

Y
Yellow Oxalis ~ a weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Yellow Pimpernel ~ a weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.
Yellow Trefoil ~ a weed (or wildflower or herb). For a description and photo of the seedling, see the Weed Identification Chart.

Z

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